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Exploring the Moral Dilemma

Whistleblowing and Ethics: Exploring the Moral Dilemma

Whistleblowing marketing - intelligence & risk solutions

Whistleblowing and ethics present a complex moral dilemma that revolves around the tension between loyalty and responsibility, truth and secrecy, and personal consequences versus the greater good.

Whistleblowing occurs when an individual, often an employee or insider, exposes information about wrongdoing or unethical practices within an organisation or government. This can include revealing fraud, corruption, safety violations, environmental abuses, or other forms of misconduct that harm the public interest.

The moral dilemma in whistleblowing arises from the conflicting principles that whistleblowers must navigate.

What should you do?

As a business you should address every aspect of why someone won’t report to you because if you don’t they may just report externally causing you untold reputational, legal and operational damage.

Areas to address in your business whistleblowing marketing strategy are detailed below. We can help you draw up marketing plans to inform and educate your staff to report internally.

Loyalty vs. Responsibility

Whistleblowers may feel a sense of loyalty to their employers or colleagues, and exposing misconduct can lead to feelings of betrayal. On the other hand, they may also feel a responsibility to protect the public or uphold their personal ethical standards.

Truth vs. Secrecy

Whistleblowers face a difficult decision between remaining silent to maintain confidentiality and revealing the truth to prevent harm. Sharing sensitive information may have legal and personal consequences, but staying silent could increase unethical behaviour.

Personal Consequences vs. Greater Good

Whistleblowers often endure significant personal hardships such as job loss, social isolation, or legal repercussions. They must weigh these potential negative consequences against the potential benefits to the public and the overall welfare of society.

Impact on Others

Whistleblowing can impact not only the wrongdoers but also innocent employees or stakeholders associated with the organisation. This raises concerns about fairness and the potential collateral damage of exposing unethical behavior.

Legal Protections vs. Real-World Outcomes

While many countries have laws protecting whistleblowers, these protections may not always be sufficient, and the process of seeking justice can be challenging, especially when challenging ‘upwards’ within an organisation and to ones leadership. It can be a ‘David v Goliath’ scenario.

Confidentiality and Anonymity

Deciding whether to blow the whistle openly or anonymously can also add difficulty. Anonymity might protect the whistleblower but could reduce the credibility of the allegations rending the actual report useless.


The decision of when to blow the whistle is critical. Acting too early may result in incomplete information, while waiting too long could enable further harm. Going public too early also allows the ‘guilty party’ to cover up and close avenues to proof. This is why it is critical for whistleblowers to report independently when in a toxic environment internally.

Ethical theories provide various perspectives on the moral implications of whistleblowing:

  • Utilitarianism: This theory suggests that the right action is the one that maximises overall happiness or minimises harm. Whistleblowing can align with utilitarian principles if it prevents greater harm to the public than the harm caused by breaking confidentiality.
  • Deontology: Deontological ethics focus on moral duties and principles. Whistleblowing could be seen as an obligation to uphold truth, transparency, and the public good, regardless of personal consequences.
  • Virtue Ethics: Virtue ethics emphasise the character and virtues of the individual. Whistleblowing might be viewed as an act of courage and integrity – conversely unethical and naïve.

The decision to blow the whistle is a deeply personal one, and each situation is completely unique. Some potential considerations for individuals facing this moral dilemma include:

Exhaust internal channels:

Before whistleblowing, they will consider whether internal channels within the organisation can be used to address the issue effectively. This can sometimes already cause angst towards the whistleblower as they are seen to be against the cultural norm of the organisation. It can also allow others time to cut off any routes to evidence, such as email, digital files and the like.

Seek legal advice:

They may consult with a lawyer to understand the protections and risks associated with whistleblowing in your country. For those working internationally, this can present further problems dependent on where their contract of employment was made and what the local laws say about whistleblowing. So they will see it as critical they get good legal advice before they say anything. Businesses should not assume when they are informed itis the first time they have raised the issue.

Weigh the consequences:

They will reflect on the potential impact of their actions on themselves, colleagues, the organisation, and the public.

Assess the severity of wrongdoing:

They will consider the scale and gravity of the unethical practices involved and make decisions that are right for them. Instead of whistleblowing, they could just move to a more ethical company taking their skills and abilities with them. Businesses will lose potential talent if issues cannot be addressed internally.

Consult with trusted advisors:

They will discuss the situation with people they trust, such as friends, family, or mentors, to gain different perspectives – but they may be very careful who they consider a friend, especially if any fallout is likely to involve them. Whistleblowing draws a line in the sand and people are not always on the reporting person’s side of it.

Whistleblowing can be a morally demanding act that requires careful reflection on one’s values, ethical principles, and responsibilities to society. As society evolves, ongoing discussions about ethics and the protection of whistleblowers are crucial to strike a balance between accountability, transparency, and the potential for personal sacrifice.

If your company needs to demonstrate a more ethical culture, you should promote transparency and openness and have a fully anonymous and encrypted whistleblowing platform that staff trust.